In the context of ISIS, Iraq has experienced triple crisis – humanitarian disaster, fiscal collapse and paralysing insecurity. The most affected governorates have suffered severe political, economic and social upheaval, and dramatic internal displacement and destruction. In this context, LADP II supported Anbar, Diyala, Kirkuk, Nineveh and Salah al-Din Governorates to develop Provincial Response Plans (PRP).
The PRP set the framework for immediate and mid-term actions aimed to generate self-sustained, nationally- and locally-owned, resilient processes for post-crises recovery encompassing all priority sectors – including social dimensions and the reintegration of the returnees. The PRPs have as immediate objective post-conflict recovery and the peaceful co-existence of communities; at the same time, they direct the efforts of Local Authorities toward longer-term economic development. The PRP provide an instrument for coordination and sustainability of donor/agency support, funding diversification and fundraising, and effective management of the revitalisation and development of areas – including through implementation of PPPs and cooperation with donors, investors and the local community. As such, they empower the Local Authorities to become the leading partner in the local development process and to proactively pursue their objectives.
The PRP were developed using CBSP methodology, participatory multi-stakeholder approach and capacity-building model of mentoring/coaching and learning-by-doing. The CBSP methodology was tailored to the conflict-related situation:
- Instead of based on detailed research, the priority areas for all 5 provinces were determined in advance based on consultation with PSC/TC and scoping mission – namely: (1) public services delivery – actions to restore infrastructure and identify new models for sustainable delivery of public services; (2) economic development and jobs creation – actions to stimulate small/micro-business, VET, and enabling environment for attracting investments; (3) community development – actions to support vulnerable groups (orphans, women, children, IDPs, etc.), peace-building and reconciliation, and rebuilding the trust of local communities. Three Working Groups (WG) were established in each province (one per priority area);
- To provide the evidence base for the strategic part of each PRP, the LADP/UNDP team supported the WG to complete vulnerability needs assessment (VA) in each priority area. The VA differs from baseline inventory in that: (1) it looks at two interlinked sets of baseline data – i.e. it reviews the situation prior to and post ISIS in each priority area; (2) it specifically targets the most vulnerable groups – including among host, IDPs and returnee populations; and (3) it pays special attention to needs regarding reconciliation and peace-building. Given the severe lack of information (destroyed records, scattered administrations, lack of access to localities), the VA process prominently included consultations with community CSOs;
- Thereafter, with support from the LADP/UNDP team, the WG completed SWOT analyses, identified strategic and critical strategic issues, and contributed to the elaboration of strategic programmes of intervention.
Through NGO members in WG and consultations with community CSOs, multiple community bodies were engaged who provided information input (neighbourhoods, community groups, individual interlocutors such as women/youth/tribal/religious leaders, etc.). The process resulted in increased response capacity of Local Authorities; it also contributed to rebuilding of trust in Local Authorities.
The VA have been fully integrated in the final PRP. The PRP include guidance on monitoring and updating in line with the Guidelines for Strategic Planning. The PRP have directly informed the new NDP 2018-2022 of Iraq.